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COVID - 19

  Effective Immediately March 17, 2020 COVID-19 Protocol

This is a difficult time with COVID-19 and for the safety of everyone, we are making some changes to our current client appointments when clients typically accompany...

  Effective Immediately March 17, 2020 COVID-19 Protocol

This is a difficult time with COVID-19 and for the safety of everyone, we are making some changes to our current client appointments when clients typically accompany their pets during their appointment.

Clinton Veterinary Hospital’s top priority right now is the safety of everyone. In order to continue offering our services and to keep within the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) guidelines regarding the transmission of COVID-19, we are making the following changes to our client protocol and lasting for as long as the recommendations are in place.

**If pet owners refuse to follow these new protocols**they will be asked to reschedule for when the guidelines are no longer in place.

New protocols include: 

  1. In order to protect the safety of everyone we request all clients showing signs of illness that can be associated with COVID-19 remain at home. Call for further options.
  2. We are asking pet owners not to enter the building, in order to minimize contact distances.
  3. When clients arrive for their appointment, they should contact our office to alert our team they have arrived and what type of vehicle they are in. They are to remain in their vehicle and our staff will go over all treatments, pricing, and examination questions via phone. Then come outside to bring their pet in for their appointment or escort clients inside.
  4. We ask clients to remain on-site in their vehicle during their pet's appointment so that they are immediately available should we have any questions and in order to return their pet as quickly as possible to reduce the pet's stress. Leaving the premises without authorization while your pet is being examined will result in an additional hospitalization charge to that day's bill per pet.
  5. If any additional information is needed prior to performing our diagnostics, or any additional tests are needed beyond the examination, a team member or doctor will contact the client via phone.
  6. Once the pet has been fully evaluated, the doctor will contact the client - via phone - to go over their findings, recommendations and answer any questions they may have. The client's call will then be transferred to a client service representative that will collect payment via credit card over the phone. We ask our clients to please use credit cards vs other payment types (cash or check) at this time.
  7. A copy of the client's pet’s invoice/receipt can be emailed to them by the end of the day if requested. All medications dispensed in house will be brought out to the client with their pet when the evaluation is complete.

We strive to offer the same great service while minimizing risk for all parties at this time. We will continue to monitor the situation and communicate any changes.

Thank you for your patience and understanding and please let us know if you have any questions or concerns.

 

Starting June 1st we will be open weekdays from 8am-5pm.

Saturdays will remain the same time of 8am-3pm.  

 

Grooming Update May 7, 2020

Following the protocols listed above we will now be offering grooming again. Due to the high demand for grooming we are working off a list and priority is going to those pets with a medical necessity. Also for further safety we are requiring all groomed pets receive our medicated bath with antiseptic shampoo, this does come at an additional cost.

We ask that you call for specific hours, days, pricing and availability. 

Adopting a pet can transform your house into a cozy home. But without careful preparation, your new furry friend can turn the old homestead into a mess. The following household and training tips will get you on your way to having it all—furry love and a tidy home.

 Get Off to a Great Start

  • Put a cozy bed for your pet in every room. Pets are much more likely to keep off of furniture if they have attractive alternatives.
  • Until your pet learns house rules, don’t give him unsupervised access to rooms with sofas, beds or any other furniture you don’t want him on. Instead, spend time with your pet in those rooms, and be ready to gently but persistently discourage him from jumping up on the furniture. It may help to leave a short leash on your dog if he tries to hop up on your sofa. The moment he does, say “Oops!” Then take hold of his leash and gently lead him away from the sofa.
  • During “chill time” together, teach your dog that you’d like him to hang out on his own bed rather than on your furniture. Tie a short tether (about four feet in length) to the leg of a sofa. Place your dog’s bed next to the tether. When you’re ready to sit back and relax, tether your dog and give him something exciting to chew. (Try a new bully stick, rawhide or stuffed Kong toy.) While he works on his treat, you can sit on the sofa and read a book or watch TV.
  • If you have a cat, try putting double-sided sticky tape or upside-down carpet runner on furniture to discourage Fluffy from scratching.

Training

  • Use dog crates and gates to confine your new dog when home alone until his house manners earn him unsupervised freedom.
  • Provide plenty of “legal” things for your dog to chew. If he has attractive toys and bones of his own, he’ll be much less likely to gnaw on your things!
  • Provide kitty with a variety of scratching posts and perches—cat trees are helpful.
  • Be sure to give your dog at least 30 minutes of aerobic exercise—running, fetching, playing or swimming—each day. A tired dog will be much less likely to engage in destructive behavior.
  • A busy dog will be much better behaved, too. Consider feeding your pet in food-puzzle toys when he has to stay home alone. If he spends his time working for his chow, he’ll be less likely to look for other ways to alleviate his boredom—like chewing on furniture legs or unstuffing couches.
  • Please also research house training for dogs and litter box training for cats.

And remember to increase your pet’s roaming privileges slowly, room by room. Going from restriction to complete freedom can set a pet up to fail.

Home Décor

Windows

  • Avoid vertical blinds, pooling drapery, ornate tassels and long cords that can become strangulation hazards. If a dog gets caught in any of these, he could panic and bring objects around him crashing down.
  • Think twice about mini-blinds, which can get bent beyond repair when a curious dog tries to see the outside world.
  • Fabric shades, café curtains and draperies are excellent choices for homes with dogs.

Furniture

  • Provide comfy beds in each room or designate one piece of furniture as your pet’s place. Cover this piece with a washable throw and teach your pet that this is the only piece of furniture he is allowed to frequent.
  • Make sure slipcovers are machine-washable, especially if a light-colored solid is your upholstery of choice.
  • Leather and vinyl furniture is easy to clean, but can be damaged by too-long toenails! Be sure to clip your cat’s and dog’s nails regularly!

Walls

  • Use washable semi-gloss paint in areas where your pet may sprinkle spittle on the walls.
  • Washable vinyl-backed wallpaper is easier to clean than traditional paper-backed wallpaper.
  • Relegate antique wallpapers or fabric wall treatments to the top half of the walls; paint or hang a washable wall covering below.

Floors

  • Machine-washable area rugs are easier to keep clean than wall-to-wall carpeting. If urine soaks into carpet backing, it’s nearly impossible to remove. If you do decide to stick with wall-to-wall, it's a good idea to stock up on carpet care products, especially enzymatic cleaners made specifically for pet accidents.
  • Roll up vegetable-dyed oriental rugs until your new dog is fully house-trained—and if rugs have decorative fringe, don’t put them back down until your pet is well past teething age (over 8 months)!
  • Tile, sheet linoleum and Pergo® are pet-friendly floorings that allow you to easily wipe away accidental droppings.
  • Seal hardwood floors with polyurethane to prevent urine odor from lingering.

Keep Your Pet’s Eating and Sleeping Areas Tidy

  • Spill-proof water bowls help prevent drooly drinkers from spilling on the floor.
  • A large, absorbent placemat under food and water bowls will make for easier clean-up after messy eaters.
  • Frequently wash your pet’s blanket and bedding; use a lint roller on pillows.
  • Scoop the poop out of your cat’s litter box at least once or twice a day.

Cleaners

  • If you use a product that contains ammonia to clean up your pet's urine, you won't be able to smell remaining odors, but your pet will! In fact, ammonia-based cleaners can actually attract pets and encourage them to urinate where they've made mistakes before. Instead, have on-hand a special enzymatic cleaner specifically made for cleaning up pet messes—all major pet stores carry them. For best results, be sure to follow the directions on the product label.

Grooming

  • Regularly trim and file your pet’s nails to keep her from shredding furniture.
  • Brush kitty or pooch regularly to remove dead skin and hair that will otherwise end up on furniture and floors.
  • Wipe off your pet’s paws and mouth after meals.
  • Trim the hair around your pet’s bottom to help keep excrement from clinging.
  • Make it easy to give your pet a good rubdown after outdoor romps. Place a machine-washable area rug by the door and keep a towel handy near the entry.

Animal-Friendly Decor

Here are some fun ways to spruce up your home for your companion animals:

  • Internal Dutch doors between rooms make it easy for you to manage which pets are allowed where. They also eliminate the need for awkward baby gates.
  • Outdoor cat enclosures can be attached to the house with a cat door to allow free access for your feline friend.
  • Fenced-in yards should have a buried, inward-facing section to prevent dogs from digging and tunneling.
  • If you have cats, be sure to install high-quality metal screens on all windows.
  • Install a folding (hinged) cat perch under a window for kitty’s viewing pleasure.
  • How about a built-in alcove for your dog’s crate?
  • By adding a porthole to a kitchen cabinet, you’ve got yourself a new place for a cat litter tray! Not only will it look clean and neat, but the porthole will keep dogs from getting in and munching on cat waste.
  • A small lift along a wall where the litter box or food and water bowls are placed would make cleaning and feeding a lot easier for senior pet owners. The lift would be used to raise and lower the litter box or food bowls.
  • If you’re really handy, how about an outdoor septic disposal system for dog waste?!

Adapted from articles by Jacque Lynn Schultz, Director, ASPCA Companion Animals Program Advisor, and Dr. Stephen Zawistowski, Senior Vice President, ASPCA National Program Office.

Helping Children Understand Pet Loss: Do’s and Don’ts*
(*excerpts from the PetPlace™ article)

At all ages, honesty is the best policy, says Marty Tously, a bereavement counselor. “That means using the words death and dying, and explaining the permanence of death. You do it gently but without confusing what dying actually means.”…A child’s ability to understand what death means depends on his/her emotional and cognitive development…the generally understood guideline of how children perceive death and dying:

Under 2: A child can feel and respond to a pet’s death, based on the reaction of those around him or her. A child picks up the stress felt by family members, no matter what the cause.

2 to 5: The child will miss the animal as a playmate, but not necessarily as a love object. They will see death as a temporary state – something like the way leaves fall off a tree in fall but grow back in the spring. As they perceive the trauma around them, however, they may regress in their behavior (e.g., thumb sucking).

5 to 9: Children begin to perceive death as permanent, but they may indulge in “magical thinking,” believing that death can be defied or bargained with. This is also the period when children recognize a correlation between what they think and what happens. For instance, a child may resent taking care of the pet and wish – however briefly – that the pet would die. If the pet then dies, the child is often consumed with guilt. Parents need to reassure children that they did not cause the pet’s death.

10 and up: Children generally understand that all living things will eventually die, and that death is total. Understanding and accepting are two different things, however. They may go through the normal stages of grief that grownups do: denial, bargaining, anger, guilt, depression and acceptance…Or they may react in other ways:

  • Depending on the age, the child may regress (sucking their thumb or temper tantrums that they had outgrown).
  • An older child may withdraw from friends and family for a while. Schoolwork may suffer and they may seem uninterested in extracurricular activities.
  • Children may fear abandonment. If a pet can die, then they may reason that their parents could die as well.
  • Children often become intensely curious about death and what happens to the body. They may ask for details that you may find uncomfortable to explain. These are questions you should answer in a straightforward, gentle and careful manner.

The worst course of action is to lie (to say the animal went away) or to use confusing euphemisms, such as the phrase “put to sleep.” Children will eventually learn the truth, and lying can breed resentment and destroy trust between parent and child.

Likewise, euphemisms can cause anxiety or confusion because children take what you say literally. “If you say a pet is put to sleep, the child may suffer sleep anxiety,” says Tously. “If you say ‘God has taken your pet because he was special,’ the child may resent God, and fear who might be next.”

  • Be open and honest. This includes the pet’s health and euthanasia. “If a pet is terminally ill and needs to be euthanized,” Tously says, “the child needs to be told as soon as possible by the parent.” Again, avoid those tempting euphemisms that cloud understanding, such as telling a child the pet was put to sleep. Use the words death and dying to make your meaning clear.  Some children want to be present during euthanasia and most will be very curious about the process. Tously says you should answer their questions. As for allowing the child to be present, some veterinarians are firmly against it; others say it depends on the child’s age and maturity.
  • Make sure the child understands what “dying” means. Explain that the animal’s body stopped working. Depending on your religious beliefs and what the child can understand, you might explain the concept of a soul. However, it is important for the child to know that the pet has died and will not be coming back.
  • Be available to let your child discuss his/her feelings about what happened. You may want to hold your own service to memorialize the pet and to say goodbye formally. Some people plant trees in a special spot in the yard, others bury the pet in a cemetery so the family can visit. Encourage your child to show his/her feelings by talking or writing about the fun times they had with their pet.
  • Show your own feelings. This tells the child that the pet was special and that they are not grieving alone. You can also encourage your child to open up, which can help the healing process.
  • Tell your child’s teachers about the loss, so they will understand why your child is behaving differently.
  • Don’t blame the veterinarian. Some parents, especially those who fear explaining euthanasia to their children, find it easier to lay it all on the vet. This is not only unfair to the veterinarian, but potentially harmful to the child. He or she may grow up distrusting veterinarians and, by extension, doctors and other medical professionals.  In addition, parents shouldn’t throw the responsibility of telling the children what needs to be done on the veterinarian. Your veterinarian can help the parent explain why euthanasia may be the most humane option, and answer questions the child may have.  

Parents often want to ease their child’s hurt by rushing out and buying another pet. Tously says this is a mistake. “The last thing you want to do is convey the impression that the pet – a family member – is replaceable,” she says. Wait until the child expresses an interest in another pet.

Children are very resilient, and they usually learn to accept their pet is gone. If a child persists with nightmares or seems unable to cope, however, it may be necessary to talk with a counselor.

Veterinary Hospice is a family-centered, medically supervised, and team-oriented service dedicated to maintaining comfort and quality of life for the terminally ill or geriatric pet until natural death occurs or the family elects euthanasia.

Modeled originally from human hospice, this specific type of veterinary care is focused on the comfort of your pet, not at finding a cure for his or her disease. It is important to note that veterinary hospice does not include any diagnostic or blood-work services. Our goal is to focus on comfort and maintaining the human animal bond.

Hearing those dreaded words “nothing else can be done” does not mean that euthanasia is the only option you have left. Veterinary hospice care is a unique approach to your pet’s end-of-life needs, one that focuses specifically on managing symptoms and maintaining happiness for as long as possible.  

You may have already received the diagnosis of a terminal illness from your family veterinarian, or you may be managing advanced age in your pet (see Geriatric Care). You may also simply need to buy some time before your spouse, child, or other family/friend has a chance to say goodbye.  

Whatever the case may be, I promise we’ve heard it all, and there is always something more we can do to help ease the process of death and dying. Pain mediations and proper instructions on how to use them along with a specific and powerful symptom management protocol are essential to everyone’s peace of mind. 

Hospice care revolves around the client-patient-doctor relationship, adding interdisciplinary supplemental services to support the family in any way possible. Education about your pet’s medical condition is the most important aspect of hospice care, and it’s what Lap of Love veterinarians spend the most time on. We have informational sheets on many common diseases our companion animals suffer from located in the Education section of the website.  

You need to know what to expect in those last few weeks, days, and hours in order to make the best decision for you, your pet, and your family. Although we cannot know for sure, we use our medical knowledge to help you make those decisions. We assist you in implementing a plan that will meet your pet’s needs and respect your family’s wishes.

Veterinary hospice care usually includes, but is not limited to:

  • Education about the end-stage disease process
  • Pain recognition and treatment
  • Subcutaneous fluids
  • Supplementary nutrition     
  • Management of incontinence
  • Bandage and wound care
  • Oxygen therapy (when appropriate and available)

There are many things that can be done at home to help your pet be more comfortable in the end-of-life stages. Visit the Education area of our website for more information. We also encourage you to talk with your regular veterinarian about additional comfort-oriented care. 

Many families also find it helpful to speak with others that have been through this difficult process. You may visit our Facebook page to read posts and view stories from other families. 

A NATURAL DEATH 

For some, euthanasia may be religiously or emotionally off the table. A “natural passing" is usually elected in this case. There are some very important points to understand when deciding if this is the right option for you and your family:  
(Please proceed with caution, some pet parents may feel this is sensitive material.) 

  • A true “natural death” is neither quick nor painless. Mother Nature has her ways of ensuring predators remove the weakest or slowest from the pack regardless of the mental state of such prey. Our pets are not in a “natural” environment, or else they would not live into their geriatric years. Therefore, a “natural passing” could more appropriately be considered an “unassisted biological death.” 
  • Yes, there are some pets (and humans) that will simply close their eyes and not wake up, but that is, by far, the exception. “Going to sleep and not waking up” is what medical euthanasia provides, Mother Nature generally does not. The natural death process has mostly to do with the primary disease your pet has been diagnosed with. For example, heart failure results in the lungs filling up with fluid and therefore (please read this with caution), a pet drowning to death. In short, death occurs when the brain fails to receive adequate levels of oxygen. How this happens, how long it takes to fully occur, and the mental state of your pet during this process, is not always an easy thing to witness.  

Please remember that although the above paints a gloom picture of unassisted biological death, it is intended to address the most common reasons families shy away from euthanasia. However, death will occur whether or not we step in and euthanize or not. Death is the opposite of birth, not the opposite of life, and our species dies without the use of these medications every day. Therefore, if your pet happens to pass without euthanasia, we believe this is a beautiful thing, perhaps a gift your pet gave you by not requiring that the ultimate decision be made on his/her behalf.  

Although not the primary goal of veterinary hospice, an unassisted death can be honored and supported the same way euthanasia is. 

The UC Davis veterinary hospital vaccination guidelines below have been based on published studies and recommendations made by task forces (including the AAFP/AFM Advisory Panel on Feline Vaccines, AAHA Canine Vaccine Task Force, and World Small Animal Veterinary Association), which include representatives from academia, private practices, governmental regulatory bodies, and industry. These groups have evaluated the benefits versus risks of the vaccines currently available on the market. 

I Canine (Dog) Vaccination Guidelines

Canine Core Vaccines
Core vaccines are recommended for all puppies and dogs with an unknown vaccination history. The diseases involved have significant morbidity and mortality and are widely distributed, and in general, vaccination results in relatively good protection from disease. These include vaccines for canine parvovirus (CPV), canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus (CAV), and rabies. In addition, the leptospirosis vaccine is now recommended as a core vaccine for dogs in California because the disease has the potential to occur in any dog (even in urban environments), can be life-threatening, and the vaccines are considered safe and efficacious, with recent improvements in safety over the last decade.

Canine Parvovirus, Distemper Virus, and Adenovirus-2 Vaccines
For initial puppy vaccination (< 16 weeks), one dose of vaccine containing modified live virus (MLV) CPV, CDV, and CAV-2 is recommended every 3-4 weeks from 6-8 weeks of age, with the final booster being given no sooner than 16 weeks of age. For dogs older than 16 weeks of age, two doses of vaccine containing modified live virus (MLV) CPV, CDV, and CAV-2 given 3-4 weeks apart are recommended. After a booster at 6 months to one year, revaccination is recommended every 3 years thereafter, ideally using a product approved for 3-year administration, unless there are special circumstances that warrant more or less frequent revaccination. Note that recommendations for killed parvovirus vaccines and recombinant CDV vaccines are different from the above. These vaccines are not currently stocked by our drug room or routinely used at the UC Davis veterinary hospital. We do not recommend vaccination with CAV-1 vaccines, since vaccination with CAV-2 results in immunity to CAV-1, and the use of CAV-2 vaccines results in less frequent adverse events.

Canine Rabies Virus Vaccines
In accordance with California state law, we recommend that puppies receive a single dose of killed rabies vaccine at 12 weeks or 3 months of age. Adult dogs with unknown vaccination history should also receive a single dose of killed rabies vaccine. A booster is required one year later, and thereafter, rabies vaccination should be performed every 3 years using a vaccine approved for 3-year administration.

Canine Leptospira Vaccines
Multiple leptospiral serovars are capable of causing disease in dogs, and minimal cross-protection is induced by each serovar. Currently available vaccines do not contain all serovars, and duration of immunity is probably about 1 year. However, leptospirosis is not uncommon in northern Californian dogs both from urban backyards and also with exposure histories involving livestock and areas frequented by wild mammals. In addition, the disease can be fatal or have high morbidity, and also has zoonotic potential. Therefore, we suggest annual vaccination of all dogs with vaccines containing all four Leptospira serovars (Grippotyphosa, Pomona, Canicola and Icterohaemorrhagiae). The initial vaccination should be followed by a booster 2-4 weeks later, and the first vaccine be given no earlier than 12 weeks of age. In general, Leptospira vaccines have been associated with more severe postvaccinal reactions (acute anaphylaxis) than other vaccines. The recent introduction of vaccines with reduced amounts of foreign protein has reduced this problem. Reaction rates for vaccines containing Leptospira, while higher than those for vaccines that do not contain Leptospira, are still low in incidence (in one study, < 0.6%). Vaccination of dogs that have had previous reactions to Leptospira vaccines should be avoided if possible. The UC Davis veterinary hospital does not recommend administering different vaccine antigens at separate time points because it reduces the chance that vaccines will be administered and there is poor evidence that it decreases the risk of reactions occurring.

Canine Non-Core Vaccines
Non-core vaccines are optional vaccines that should be considered in light of the exposure risk of the animal, ie. based on geographic distribution and the lifestyle of the pet. Several of the diseases involved are often self-limiting or respond readily to treatment. Vaccines considered as non-core vaccines are canine parainfluenza virus (CPiV), canine influenza virus H3N8, canine influenza virus H3N2 distemper-measles combination vaccine, Bordetella bronchiseptica, and Borrelia burgdorferi. Vaccination with these vaccines is generally less effective in protecting against disease than vaccination with the core vaccines.

Canine Parainfluenza Virus and Bordetella bronchiseptica
These are both agents associated with 'kennel cough' or canine infectious respiratory disease complex (CIRDC) in dogs. For Bordetella bronchiseptica, mucosal vaccination with live avirulent bacteria is recommended for dogs expected to board, be shown, or to enter a kennel situation within 6 months of the time of vaccination. We currently stock the intranasal vaccine containing both B. bronchiseptica and CPiV. For puppies and previously unvaccinated dogs, only one dose of this vaccine is required (recommendations differ for the parenteral, killed form of this vaccine). Most boarding kennels require that this vaccine be given within 6 months of boarding; the vaccine should be administered at least one week prior to the anticipated boarding date for maximum effect. Although some kennels require immunization every 6 months, annual booster vaccination with B. bronchiseptica vaccines is considered adequate for protection.

Canine Influenza Virus (CIV)
Canine influenza virus H3N8 emerged in the United States in greyhounds in Florida in 2003. The virus is now enzootic in many dog populations in Colorado, Florida, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and New York. The virus causes upper respiratory signs including a cough, nasal discharge, and a low-grade fever followed by recovery. A small percentage of dogs develop more severe signs in association with hemorrhagic pneumonia. Canine influenza virus H3N2 emerged in 2015 in Illinois and has spread to several other states, including California. Several affected dogs have recently (December 2017/January 2018) been identified in the south bay area in Northern California. Disease caused by CIV H3N2 may be slightly more severe than that caused by CIV H3N8, and the virus has affected more dogs in veterinary hospitals and the community (H3N8 has largely remained confined to shelters). Vaccines for both infections are commercially available, including a combination H3N8/H3N2 vaccine. In Northern California, use of the H3N2 vaccine may be warranted for dogs that contact other dogs, such as those that board. Vaccines may reduce clinical signs and virus shedding in dogs infected by CIV. Vaccination may have the potential to interfere with the results of serological testing, which in non-endemic areas are useful to assist diagnosis.

Canine Distemper-Measles Combination Vaccine
This vaccine has been used between 4 and 12 weeks of age to protect dogs against distemper in the face of maternal antibodies directed at CDV. Protection occurs within 72 hours of vaccination. It is indicated only for use in households/kennels/shelters where CDV is a recognized problem. Only one dose of the vaccine should be given, after which pups are boostered with the CDV vaccine to minimize the transfer of anti-measles virus maternal antibodies to pups of the next generation. The UC Davis veterinary hospital does not stock this vaccine as situations requiring their use do not arise commonly in our hospital population.

Canine Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme) Vaccine
The incidence of Lyme disease in California is currently considered extremely low. Furthermore, use of the vaccine even in endemic areas (such as the east coast of the US) has been controversial because of anecdotal reports of vaccine-associated adverse events. Most infected dogs show no clinical signs, and the majority of dogs contracting Lyme disease respond to treatment with antimicrobials. Furthermore, prophylaxis may be effectively achieved by preventing exposure to the tick vector. If travel to endemic areas (i.e. the East Coast) is anticipated, vaccination could be considered, followed by boosters at intervals in line with risk of exposure. The UC Davis veterinary hospital does not stock the Lyme vaccine or recommend it for use in dogs residing solely in Northern California.

Other Canine Vaccines
Several other canine vaccines are currently available on the market. These are vaccines for canine coronavirus, canine adenovirus-1, and rattlesnake envenomation. The reports of the AVMA and the AAHA canine vaccine task force have listed these three vaccines as not generally recommended, because ‘the diseases are either of little clinical significance or respond readily to treatment’, evidence for efficacy of these vaccines is minimal, and they may ‘produce adverse events with limited benefit’. Currently, information regarding the efficacy of the canine rattlesnake vaccine is insufficient. The UC Davis veterinary hosptial does not stock or routinely recommend use of these vaccines.

Canine Enteric Coronavirus Vaccine
Infection with canine enteric coronavirus (CCV) alone has been associated with mild disease only, and only in dogs < 6 weeks of age. It has not been possible to reproduce the infection experimentally, unless immunosuppressive doses of glucocorticoids are administered. Serum antibodies do not correlate with resistance to infection, and duration of immunity is unknown. In mixed infections with CCV and canine parvovirus (CPV), CPV is the major pathogen. Vaccination against CPV therefore protects puppies from disease following challenge with both canine enteric coronavirus and CPV. Thus, the UC Davis veterinary hospital does not routinely recommend vaccination against canine enteric coronavirus and the vaccine is not stocked by our drug room.

Canine Rattlesnake Vaccine
The canine rattlesnake vaccine comprises venom components from Crotalus atrox (western diamondback). Although a rattlesnake vaccine may be potentially useful for dogs that frequently encounter rattlesnakes, currently we are unable to recommend this vaccine because of insufficient information regarding the efficacy of the vaccine in dogs. Dogs develop neutralizing antibody titers to C. atrox venom, and may also develop antibody titers to components of other rattlesnake venoms, but research in this area is ongoing. Owners of vaccinated dogs must still seek veterinary care immediately in the event of a bite, because 1) the type of snake is often unknown; 2) antibody titers may be overwhelmed in the face of severe envenomation, and 3) an individual dog may lack sufficient protection depending on its response to the vaccine and the time elapsed since vaccination. According to the manufacturer, to date, rare vaccinated dogs have died following a bite when there were substantial delays (12-24 hours) in seeking treatment. Boosters are recommended at least annually while dogs remain at risk. Adverse reactions appear to be low and consistent with those resulting from vaccination with other products available on the market. Based on existing evidence, the UC Davis veterinary hospital does not currently recommend routine vaccination of dogs for rattlesnake envenomation, and the vaccine is not stocked by our drug room.

II.Feline (Cat) Vaccination Guidelines

In general, guidelines for vaccination of cats have been strongly influenced by the appearance of vaccine-associated sarcomas in cats, and in particular their epidemiologic association with feline leukemia virus vaccines and killed rabies virus vaccines. Thus, there is clear evidence for minimizing frequency of vaccination in cats. The recommendations below have been made in light of the AVMA/AAHA/AAFP/VCS task force recommendations on vaccine-associated sarcomas in cats. Risk factors for sarcomas should be discussed with cat owners at the time of examination. If a cat develops a palpable granuloma at the site of previous vaccination, the benefits vs risks of future vaccinations should be carefully considered. All vaccine-associated sarcomas should be reported to the vaccine manufacturer.

Feline Core Vaccines
The definitions of core and non-core vaccines described in the canine vaccination guidelines above also apply to the feline vaccines. The core feline vaccines are those for feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV1), feline calicivirus (FCV), feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), feline leukemia virus (FeLV - kittens) and rabies.

Feline Herpesvirus 1, Feline Calicivirus and Feline Panleukopenia Virus Vaccines
For initial kitten vaccination (< 16 weeks), one dose of parenteral vaccine containing modified live virus (MLV) FHV1, FCV, and FPV is recommended every 3-4 weeks from 6-8 weeks of age, with the final booster being given no sooner than 16 weeks of age. For cats older than 16 weeks of age, two doses of vaccine containing modified live virus (MLV) FHV1, FCV, and FPV given 3-4 weeks apart are recommended. After a booster at 6 months to one year, revaccination is suggested every 3 years thereafter for cats at low risk of exposure. It is recommended that these vaccines be administered on the right thoracic limb as distally as possible. Note that recommendations for killed and intranasal FHV1 and FCV vaccines are different from the above. Killed and intranasal varieties of these vaccines are not routinely used at the UC Davis veterinary hospital, but there may be some advantages to the use of non-adjuvanted vaccines that that include two inactivated FCV strains over those that contain one strain. The use of FPV MLV vaccines should be avoided in pregnant queens and kittens less than one month of age.

Feline Rabies Virus Vaccines
Cats are important in the epidemiology of rabies in the United States. In general we recommend that kittens receive a single dose of killed or recombinant rabies vaccine at 12-16 weeks of age. Adult cats with unknown vaccination history should also receive a single dose of killed or recombinant rabies vaccine. For the recombinant vaccines, boosters are recommended at yearly intervals. We currently stock and suggest the use of the recombinant rabies vaccine, because there is some evidence that it is associated with a decreased risk of sarcoma formation (Srivastav et al, 2012). For the killed rabies vaccines, a booster is required at one year, and thereafter, rabies vaccination should be performed every 3 years using a vaccine approved for 3-year administration. According to recommendations of the vaccine-associated sarcoma task force, rabies vaccines are administered subcutaneously as distally as possible in the right rear limb.

Feline Leukemia Virus Vaccine
A number of FeLV vaccines are available on the market. The whole inactivated viral vaccines have recently been shown to be highly efficacious based on the results of molecular detection methods for FeLV, even producing sterilizing immunity, although this was not found to be the case for an inactivated mixed subunit vaccine (Torres et al, 2009). We recommend vaccination of all FeLV-negative kittens and any FeLV-negative adult cats allowed to go outdoors or cats having direct contact with other cats of unknown FeLV status. Vaccination is most likely to be useful in kittens and young adult cats, because acquired resistance to infection develops beyond 16 weeks of age. Vaccination is not recommended for FeLV-positive cats and indoor cats with no likelihood of exposure to FeLV.

Use of the recombinant FeLV vaccine offers the potential advantage of a decreased risk of sarcoma formation (Srivastav et al, 2012). However, there is some evidence that the inactivated vaccines may be more efficacious (Patel et al, 2015). Until further supporting evidence is available from independent investigators that supports improved efficacy of the inactivated over the recombinant vaccine, the UC Davis veterinary hospital does not have a preference over whether inactivated or recombinant vaccines are used, but we currently stock the recombinant vaccine.

Initially, two doses of FeLV vaccine are given at 2-4 week intervals, after which annual boosters (recombinant vaccine) or 3-yearly boosters (inactivated vaccine) are recommended depending on risk. According to recommendations of the vaccine-associated sarcoma task force, parenteral FeLV vaccines are administered subcutaneously as distally as possible in the left rear limb.

Feline Non-Core Vaccines
Optional or non-core vaccines for cats consist of the vaccines for feline immunodeficiency virus, Chlamydia felis, and Bordetella bronchiseptica.

Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Vaccine
The FIV vaccine was an inactivated, adjuvented dual subtype vaccine that was released in July 2002. It is no longer being made or distributed in North America. Unfortunately, vaccination of FIV-negative cats rendered currently available serologic tests (ELISA and Western blot) positive for at least a year following vaccination, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based tests do not reliably identify cats with natural infection. Previous vaccination does not prevent infection, and the significance of a positive test result in a vaccinated cat cannot be assessed. Questions remained regarding the vaccine’s ability to protect against all of the FIV subtypes and strains to which cats might be exposed. The UC Davis veterinary hospital drug room did not stock this vaccine, and its routine use in indoor cats is not recommended.

Feline Chlamydia felis Vaccine
Chlamydia felis causes conjunctivitis in cats that generally responds readily to antimicrobial treatment. Immunity induced by vaccination is probably of short duration and the vaccine provides only incomplete protection. The use of this vaccine could be considered for cats entering a population of cats where infection is known to be endemic. However, the vaccine has been associated with adverse reactions in 3% of vaccinated cats, and we do not recommend routine vaccination of low-risk cats with this vaccine. The C. felis vaccine is therefore not stocked by the UC Davis veterinary hospital drug room.

Feline Bordetella bronchiseptica Vaccine
This is a modified live intranasal vaccine. Bordetella bronchiseptica is primarily a problem of very young kittens, where it can cause severe lower respiratory tract disease. It appears to be uncommon in adult cats and pet cats in general. For these reasons, the UC Davis veterinary hospital does not recommend routine vaccination of pet cats for Bordetella bronchiseptica. The vaccine could be considered for young cats at high risk of exposure in large, multiple cat environments. The UC Davis veterinary hospital drug room does not stock this vaccine.

Other Feline Vaccines
The feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) vaccine has been listed as ‘Not Generally Recommended’ by the AAFP.

Feline Infectious Peritonitis Vaccine

The FIP vaccine is an intranasal modified live virus product. The efficacy of this vaccine is controversial, and duration of immunity may be short, although the vaccine appears to be safe. Although exposure to feline coronaviruses in cat populations is high, the incidence of FIP is very low, especially in single-cat households (where it is 1 in 5000). Most cats in cattery situations where FIP is a problem become infected with coronaviruses prior to 16 weeks of age, which is the age at which vaccination is first recommended. Vaccination could be considered for seronegative cats entering a cattery where FIP is common. We do not routinely recommend vaccinating household cats with the FIP vaccine, and the vaccine is not stocked by our drug room.

(Revised Jan 2018)

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